From 9/11, to intense preventing on the bottom, and now full withdrawal of US-led forces, right here’s what occurred.


Al-Qaeda, led by Osama Bin Laden in Afghanistan, carries out the most important terror assault ever carried out on US soil.

The World Trade Centre is reduced to rubble
Picture caption The World Commerce Centre is lowered to rubble

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4 business airliners are hijacked. Two are flown into the World Commerce Centre in New York, which collapses. One hits the Pentagon constructing in Washington, and one crashes right into a area in Pennsylvania. Almost 3,000 individuals are killed.

First air strikes

A US-led coalition bombs Taliban and al-Qaeda amenities in Afghanistan. Targets embrace Kabul, Kandahar and Jalalabad.

The Taliban, who took energy after a decade-long Soviet occupation was adopted by civil warfare, refuse handy over Bin Laden. Their air defences and small fleet of fighter plane are destroyed.

Fall of Kabul

The Northern Alliance, a bunch of anti-Taliban rebels backed by coalition forces, enters Kabul because the Taliban flee the town.

Coalition-backed Northern Alliance fighters ride tanks into Kabul as the Taliban retreat
Picture caption Coalition-backed Northern Alliance fighters experience tanks into Kabul because the Taliban retreat

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By the 13 November 2001, all Taliban have both fled or been neutralised. Different cities rapidly fall.

New structure

After protracted negotiations at a “loya jirga” or grand meeting, the brand new Afghan structure is signed into regulation. The structure paves the way in which for presidential elections in October 2004.

Hamid Karzai turns into president

Hamid Karzai led anti-Taliban groups around Kandahar before becoming president
Picture caption Hamid Karzai led anti-Taliban teams round Kandahar earlier than turning into president

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Hamid Karzai, the chief of the Popalzai Durrani tribe, turns into the primary president beneath the brand new structure. He serves two five-year phrases as president.

UK troops deployed to Helmand

British troops arrive in Helmand province, a Taliban stronghold within the south of the nation.

Soldiers of the Parachute Regiment lead the first UK deployment to Helmand
Picture caption Troopers of the Parachute Regiment lead the primary UK deployment to Helmand

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Their preliminary mission is to help reconstruction tasks, however they’re rapidly drawn into fight operations. Greater than 450 British troops lose their lives in Afghanistan over the course of the battle.

Obama’s surge

US President Barack Obama approves a significant improve within the variety of troops despatched to Afghanistan. At their peak, they quantity about 140,000.

US troops in intense combat operations in the south of the country
Picture caption US troops in intense fight operations within the south of the nation

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The so-called “surge” is modelled on US technique in Iraq the place US forces focussed on defending the civilian inhabitants in addition to killing rebel fighters.

Osama Bin Laden killed

Bin Laden is traced to a compound located less than a mile from a Pakistani military academy
Picture caption Bin Laden is traced to a compound situated lower than a mile from a Pakistani navy academy

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The chief of al-Qaeda is killed in an assault by US Navy Seals on a compound in Abbottabad in Pakistan. Bin Laden’s physique is eliminated and buried at sea. The operation ends a 10-year hunt led by the CIA.  The affirmation that Bin Laden had been residing on Pakistani soil fuels accusations within the US that Pakistan is an unreliable ally within the warfare on terror.

Loss of life of Mullah Omar

The founding father of the Taliban, Mullah Mohammed Omar, dies. His dying is stored secret for greater than two years.

The Taliban leader is believed to have suffered a shrapnel wound to his right eye in the 1980s
Picture caption The Taliban chief is believed to have suffered a shrapnel wound to his proper eye within the Nineteen Eighties

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In response to Afghan intelligence, Mullah Omar dies of well being issues at a hospital within the Pakistani metropolis of Karachi. Pakistan denies that he was within the nation.

Nato ends fight operations

At a ceremony in Kabul, Nato ends its fight operations in Afghanistan. With the surge now over, the US withdraws hundreds of troops.  Most of those that stay give attention to coaching and supporting the Afghan safety forces.

Taliban resurgence

The Taliban launch a collection of suicide assaults, automobile bombings and different assaults. The parliament constructing in Kabul, and the town of Kunduz are attacked. Islamic State militants start operations in Afghanistan.

Kabul's international airport is struck on 10 August 2015
Picture caption Kabul’s worldwide airport is struck on 10 August 2015

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Loss of life toll announcement

Afghan President Ashraf Ghani says greater than 45,000 members of his nation’s safety forces have been killed since he turned chief in 2014. The determine is way increased than beforehand thought.

US indicators take care of Taliban

The US and the Taliban signal an “settlement for bringing peace” to Afghanistan, in Doha, Qatar. The US and Nato allies conform to withdraw all troops inside 14 months if the militants uphold the deal.

The deal lays out a timetable for full withdrawal
Picture caption The deal lays out a timetable for full withdrawal

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Date for remaining withdrawal

US forces are scheduled to withdraw from Afghanistan by 11 September 2021, precisely 20 years since 9/11. There are robust indications that the withdrawal could also be full earlier than the official deadline.