WASHINGTON — A sharply divided Home voted on Wednesday to create an unbiased fee to research the Jan. 6 Capitol assault, overcoming opposition from Republicans decided to cease a high-profile accounting of the deadly pro-Trump riot.

However even because the laws handed the Home, prime Republicans locked arms in an effort to doom it within the Senate and defend former President Donald J. Trump and their get together from new scrutiny of their roles within the occasions of that day.

The 252-to-175 vote within the Home, with four-fifths of Republicans opposed, pointed to the troublesome path for the proposal within the Senate. Thirty-five Republicans bucked their management to again the invoice.

The vote got here hours after Senator Mitch McConnell of Kentucky, the Republican chief, declared his opposition to the plan. Mr. McConnell had mentioned only a day earlier that he was open to voting for it, and he had beforehand been vocal each in condemning Mr. Trump’s position in instigating the assault and denouncing the trouble by some Republicans on Jan. 6 to dam certification of the 2020 election outcomes.

His reversal mirrored broader efforts by the get together to place the assault on the Capitol behind them politically — or to recast the rioting as a largely peaceful protest — beneath strain from Mr. Trump and due to considerations in regards to the concern dogging them into the 2022 midterm elections.

Proponents hailed the transfer to determine the fee as an moral and sensible necessity to completely perceive probably the most violent assault on Congress in two centuries and the election lies by Mr. Trump that fueled it. Modeled after the physique that studied the Sept. 11, 2001, assaults, the 10-person fee would take an inquiry out of the halls of Congress and ship findings by Dec. 31.

“I used to be on the Capitol flooring, the speaker was within the chair and a howling mob attacked america Capitol,” Consultant Zoe Lofgren, Democrat of California and the chairwoman of a committee already learning the assault, mentioned in an animated attraction earlier than the vote. She reminded colleagues of the “pounding on the doorways” and the “maimed cops.”

“We have to resolve this to not simply perceive what occurred main as much as the Sixth, however learn how to stop that from taking place once more — learn how to shield the oldest democracy on this planet sooner or later,” Ms. Lofgren mentioned.

However the prospects for Senate passage dimmed considerably after Mr. McConnell joined his Home counterpart, Consultant Kevin McCarthy of California, and Mr. Trump in panning the proposal drafted by Democrats and a average Home Republican as overly partisan and duplicative of constant Justice Division prison prosecutions and slender congressional investigations.

“After cautious consideration, I’ve made the choice to oppose the Home Democrats’ slanted and unbalanced proposal for an additional fee to check the occasions of Jan. 6,” Mr. McConnell mentioned on the Senate flooring.

Many rank-and-file Republican senators who had flirted with backing the fee thought shortly fell in line, as nicely, arguing that the proposal was not actually bipartisan and that the investigation would take too lengthy and study too little. Their positions made it much less probably that Democrats may win over the ten Republican votes they would wish to achieve the 60-vote threshold required for passage of the invoice within the evenly divided Senate.

Republican leaders, who witnessed the occasions of Jan. 6 and fled for his or her lives as an armed mob overtook their office, had briefly thought of supporting the fee out of a way of equity. The 9/11 fee was adopted practically unanimously 20 years in the past, and its work was extensively heralded.

Their remaining opposition pointed to a colder political calculation now driving Republicans’ strategy to 2022: that it’s higher to keep away from a probably uncontrollable reckoning centered on Mr. Trump and the false claims of voter fraud he continues to promulgate.

“I need our midterm message to be in regards to the sorts of points that the American individuals are coping with — it’s jobs and wages and the economic system, nationwide safety, protected streets, sturdy borders and people kinds of points,” mentioned Senator John Thune of South Dakota, Mr. McConnell’s No. 2. “Not relitigating the 2020 election.”

Coming after a bipartisan negotiation that had been sanctioned by Mr. McCarthy, the end result was dispiriting to those that felt that Mr. Trump’s exit from the general public stage and the realities of an assault on the seat of presidency would possibly assist ease the strained relations between Republicans and Democrats.

The 2 events are anticipated to impasse once more on Thursday when Democrats name a vote on a $1.9 billion spending plan to harden the Capitol’s defenses 4 months after no less than 5 individuals died in reference to the invasion, which additionally injured practically 140 individuals and induced tens of tens of millions of {dollars} in injury to the Capitol complicated.

Democrats had been livid. They’d agreed to a number of concessions to Mr. McCarthy beneath the assumption he would assist the deal, solely to see him slam it publicly as a result of it didn’t examine unrelated “political violence” on the left. Some Democrats mentioned the episode solely underscored to them that it was pointless to barter with the Republicans on any of the massive points that divide the events, together with President Biden’s infrastructure proposal.

Within the Home, Democratic leaders threatened to pursue a extra partisan investigation of Jan. 6 via current congressional committees or by creating a brand new choose committee if the fee proposal dies.

Democratic lawmakers, and even some Republicans, speculated that Mr. McCarthy’s reticence may have been pushed partly by an effort to stop damaging details about his personal conversations with Mr. Trump round Jan. 6 from coming to mild at a time when he’s attempting to assist his get together retake the Home and grow to be speaker.

“You’ll need to ask them what they’re afraid of,” Speaker Nancy Pelosi of California informed reporters. “However it seems like they’re afraid of the reality, and that’s most unlucky.”

Senator Chuck Schumer, Democrat of New York and the bulk chief, vowed to name a vote on the Senate flooring within the coming weeks to drive Republicans to take a public place, although he didn’t provide a selected date.

“The American individuals will see for themselves whether or not our Republican pals stand on the aspect of reality or on the aspect of Donald Trump’s large lie,” he mentioned.

Throughout debate on the Home flooring, Republicans who supported the panel repeatedly sought to border it as a reprise of the 9/11 fee, whose leaders endorsed the brand new effort. Although the Senate impeachment trial and a handful of congressional committees have already produced an in depth account of that day, key questions stay unanswered, significantly about Mr. Trump’s conduct and the roots of intelligence and safety failures.

“Make no mistake about it, that is about info, it’s not partisan politics,” mentioned Consultant John Katko, Republican of New York, who negotiated the laws creating the fee with Consultant Bennie Thompson, Democrat of Mississippi.

“Jan. 6 goes to hang-out this establishment for a protracted, very long time,” mentioned Consultant Fred Upton of Michigan, one other Republican who voted in favor of creating the fee. “5 months later, we nonetheless don’t have solutions to the fundamental questions: who knew what when, and what did they do about it?”

Among the many Republicans voting in favor of the fee had been a well-recognized group of moderates and stalwart critics of Mr. Trump, lots of whom both voted to question him over the Jan. 6 assault or in any other case condemned his actions. Probably the most notable was Consultant Liz Cheney of Wyoming, who was run out of the party leadership last week as a result of she refused to cease criticizing Mr. Trump for his makes an attempt to overturn the election.

However supporters additionally counted a wider forged of established Republicans from conservative-leaning districts who, regardless of the politics, had been rattled by the assault and desire a thorough examine.

Amongst these voting no was Consultant Greg Pence, Republican of Indiana and the brother of former Vice President Mike Pence, whose opposition to blocking certification of the election outcomes made him one of many principal targets of the pro-Trump rioters, a few of whom erected a gallows exterior the Capitol. In an announcement, Consultant Pence mentioned Ms. Pelosi was attempting to nominate herself “hanging choose” to hold out a “predetermined political execution of Donald Trump.”

The extent of Republican defections on Wednesday’s vote was embarrassing for Mr. McCarthy at a time when he has vowed to unite the get together, and few Republicans had been prepared to defend their opposition throughout debate. Allies of Mr. Katko had been significantly incensed that the minority chief deputized him to make a deal after which minimize him unfastened when he did.

Democrats sought to additional embarrass Republicans by circulating an uncommon letter by Capitol Cops expressing “profound disappointment” with Mr. McCarthy and Mr. McConnell.

“It’s unconscionable to even suppose anybody may recommend we have to transfer ahead and recover from it,” the officers wrote within the unsigned letter.

Within the Senate, a small group of average Republicans prompt on Wednesday they had been nonetheless inquisitive about pursuing a fee, albeit with adjustments to how workers members can be appointed. However Mr. McConnell left little or no risk that his management staff may get to sure.

Mr. McConnell had emerged from Jan. 6 as one in every of Mr. Trump’s most outspoken Republican critics, pinning blame squarely on him for dropping the Home, Senate and White Home and provoking probably the most lethal assault on Congress in 200 years. However within the months since, as Mr. Trump has reasserted management over the get together, Mr. McConnell has been more and more reluctant to stir his ire.

On Wednesday, he insisted that he believed in attending to the underside of what occurred, however he argued that investigations already underway by the Justice Division and bipartisan Senate committees had been adequate. In actuality, the scope of that work is more likely to be a lot narrower than what a fee may examine.

“The info have come out,” Mr. McConnell mentioned, “and they’re going to proceed to return out.”